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肝硬化患者经颈静脉肝内门体分流术后门静脉压力下降梯度与预后的关系
Association between portal vein pressure drop gradient after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and clinical prognosis
文章发布日期:2016年11月04日  来源:  作者:徐征国,赵泳冰,郑媛钰,等  点击次数:1104次  下载次数:277次

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【摘要】:目的探讨经颈静脉肝内门体分流术(TIPS)治疗肝硬化门静脉高压症患者的门静脉压力下降梯度与临床预后的关系,总结理想的门静脉压力降低范围。方法收集2013年11月-2015年12月于第三军医大学新桥医院消化科行TIPS的患者58例,所有患者均行TIPS和胃冠状静脉及胃短静脉栓塞术,监测门静脉压力梯度变化区间值,随访时间3 d~24个月,分析门静脉压力降低梯度与术后肝功能、脾功能、再出血率、并发肝性脑病及门静脉高压性胃肠疾病的关系。手术前后各指标的比较采用配对t检验。结果术后3 d患者肝功能明显下降。术后2个月,TBil水平较术前明显升高,差异有统计学意义[(49.81±27.82) μmol/L vs (31.64±17.67) μmol/L,t=5372,P<0001]。术后6个月,RBC、PLT水平变化较术前不明显,但WBC有所下降,且差异具有统计学意义[(379±1.37)×109/L vs (4.57±2.24)×109/L,t=2.835,P=0.006]。患者术前门静脉压力为(30.62±3.56)mm Hg,较术后(21.21±2.90)mm Hg平均下降约23%(t=23.318,P<0001)。所有患者门静脉高压性胃肠病症状(如腹胀、纳差、腹泻等)均得到不同程度的缓解。术后无支架狭窄或闭塞;术后肝性脑病13例,易发生于术后门静脉压力下降至(14.7~25.7) mm Hg时,即压力下降百分比为36%~40%。术后即刻行脾静脉造影示曲张静脉基本消失,未见有侧支静脉曲张。术后1个月内复查胃镜,食道静脉曲张未见明显变化者5例。其余患者随访2年,患者术后食管胃底静脉曲张程度从重度、红色征阳性逐渐减轻,变成中度、轻度,甚至消失。随着时间的推移,轻度+消失比例从术后第3d的22%升至第2年的53%。术后1个月内,未见再次出血患者。术后2、6、10、14、16、24个月分别出现再次出血6例,其中1例不排除十二指肠球部溃疡出血;5例为食管胃底静脉曲张再次破裂出血,其术前中位门静脉压力为36.5 mm Hg,术后24.8 mm Hg,平均压力下降32%。结论TIPS术对肝硬化门静脉高压症患者止血及预防再次出血效果良好,将门静脉压力水平控制在(21.21±2.90)mm Hg以下,门静脉压力下降程度低于36%~40%,既可以减少术后再出血的发生率,亦可以避免肝性脑病的发生。TIPS术后短期内可造成肝损伤,但1~6个月可恢复正常,但短期内对脾功能无明显恢复作用。
【Abstract】:ObjectiveTo investigate the association between portal vein pressure drop gradient in patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension treated by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and clinical prognosis, as well as the ideal range of portal vein pressure drop. MethodsA total of 58 patients who underwent TIPS in Xinqiao Hospital of Third Military Medical University from November 2013 to December 2015 were enrolled. All the patients underwent TIPS and embolization of the gastric coronary vein and the short gastric veins, and the change intervals of portal vein pressure gradient were monitored. The follow-up time ranged from 3 days to 2 years, and the association of portal vein pressure drop gradient with postoperative liver function, splenic function, rebleeding rate, hepatic encephalopathy, and portal hypertensive gastrointestinal diseases was analyzed. The paired t-test was used for comparison of parameters before and after treatment. ResultsThe patients had a significant reduction in liver function on day 3 after surgery. At 2 month after surgery, the levels of TBil was rised and had significant changes[(49.81±27.82)μmol/L vs (31.64±17.67) μmol/L,t=5.372,P<0001]. At 6 months after surgery, red blood cell count and platelet count had no significant changes,but,white blood cell count was reduced[(3.79±137)×109/L vs (457±224)×109/L,t=2.835,P=0.006]. There was a 23% reduction in portal vein pressure after surgery (from 30.62±3.56 mmHg before surgery to 21.21±2.90 mmHg after surgery, t=23.318,P<0001). All the patients had varying degrees of relief of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with portal vein hypertension, such as abdominal distension, poor appetite, and diarrhea. Of all patients, none experienced in-stent restenosis or occlusion and 13 experienced hepatic encephalopathy after surgery, which tended to occur at the time when postoperative portal vein pressure was reduced to 14.7-25.7 mmHg, i.e., a 36%-40% reduction in portal vein pressure. The results of splenic venography performed immediately after surgery showed that varicose veins almost disappeared and that there were no collateral varices. Gastroscopy was performed again within 1 month after surgery and 5 patients had no significant changes in esophageal varices. The other patients were followed up for 2 years, and the severity of esophageal and gastric varices gradually changed from severe varices with red color sign to moderate and mild varices and even disappeared. The proportion of patients with mild and disappeared varices increased from 22% on day 3 after surgery to 52% in the second year after surgery. No patients experienced rebleeding within 1 month after surgery. Six patients each experienced rebleeding at 2, 6, 10, 14, 16, and 24 months after surgery, and in one patient, duodenal bulbar ulcer and bleeding was not excluded; the other 5 patients experienced gastric variceal bleeding again, with a median portal vein pressure of 36.46 mmHg before surgery and 24.8 mmHg after surgery, with a 32% reduction in portal vein pressure. ConclusionTIPS has a good clinical effect in hemostasis and prevention of rebleeding in patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension and can control the portal vein pressure below 21.21±2.90 mmHg, and the degree of reduction in portal vein pressure is below 36%-40%. It can reduce the incidence of postoperative rebleeding and avoid the development of hepatic encephalopathy. TIPS can cause liver impairment within a short period of time after surgery, and liver function can return to normal within 1-6 months after surgery, but splenic function does not recover significantly.
【关键字】:肝硬化; 食管和胃静脉曲张; 门静脉压; 门体分流术, 经颈静脉肝内
【Key words】:liver cirrhosis; esophageal and gastric varices; portal pressure; portasystemic shunt, transjugular intrahepatic
【引证本文】:徐征国, 赵泳冰, 郑媛钰, 等. 肝硬化患者经颈静脉肝内门体分流术后门静脉压力下降梯度与预后的关系[J]. 临床肝胆病杂志, 2016, 32(12): 2326-2330.

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